美国纽约代写政治assignment 国家发展

2020-06-25 20:38

前一点简要介绍了非国家行为体的发展,以及自全球化兴起以来它们如何在外交政策的执行中发挥重要作用,分析它们的重要性以及它们如何帮助塑造21世纪的外交政策是很重要的。政府间组织在全球化进程中发挥了非常重要的作用。IGO通常是由主权国家组成的组织,它们共同帮助提出解决问题的方案,这些问题通常是跨国界的。国际非政府组织迅速扩大,由于全球化及其旨在鼓励国家间合作的目的,数以千计的国际非政府组织成立(McGrew和Held, 2002年)。政府间组织已经成为实施外交政策的重要组成部分,如今,如果一个国家希望实现任何目标,他们需要通过政府间组织与其他国家采取集体行动。通过签署成为IGO的成员,一个国家通常放弃其部分主权,以成为一个所有成员国就某一特定问题作出一致决定的机构的成员。政府间组织的一个主要因素是“全球经济一体化的出现”。欧洲单一市场的出现,以及美元与金本位制的分离,使得各国经济紧密相连。各国严重依赖世界银行、国际货币基金组织和世界贸易组织等政府组织来规范国际金融市场和自由贸易。事实证明,这种做法有利有弊——一方面,它有助于在经济停滞时期提供保护。然而,正如2008年全球金融危机所看到的那样,日益增强的相互联系意味着,当一个国家的经济遭遇危机时,世界各地的其他国家也会很快感受到影响,特别是当一个国家的经济规模比进入金融危机的国家小得多的时候;在危机时期,国家可能需要其他国家或政府间组织的援助,这证明了自全球化出现以来它们在制定外交政策方面的重要性。
美国纽约代写政治assignment 国家发展
The previous point briefed on the development of non-state actors and how they now play a significant role in the conduction of foreign policy since the rise of globalization, it is important to analyze the importance of these and how they help shape foreign policy in the 21st century. A very important role in the process of globalization has been by Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs).  An IGO is typically an organization that is made up of sovereign states that come together to help come up with solutions to problems that are usually cross border. IGOs have rapidly expanded, with thousands being set up as a result of globalization and its aim to encourage cooperation between nations (McGrew and Held, 2002). IGOs have become an essential part of conducting foreign policy, nowadays if a state wishes to achieve anything they need to take collective action with other states through IGOs. By signing up to be a member of an IGO, a state usually gives up some of its sovereignty in order to be a member of a body where all member states make a unanimous decision on a particular issue. A major factor of IGOs has been “the emergence of integrated global economies”. The emergence of the European single market, and the separation of the U.S. Dollar from the gold standard has resulted in economies that are closely aligned. States heavily rely on IGOs such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization to regulate the international financial market and free trade. This has proved to have its advantages and disadvantages – on the one hand it helps provide protection during times of economic stagnation. However the increased interconnectedness, as seen by the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 meant that when one countries economy hits crisis, others around the world also very quickly feel the effects too, especially if a state’s economy is significantly smaller of that which is entering a financial crisis; in times of crisis states may require assistance from other states or IGOs, proving the significance they have in shaping foreign policy since the emergence of globalization.
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