美国西雅图assignment代写 循环经济模式

2020-07-23 03:39

将这种循环经济模式应用于余孽的行业是制糖业。在这个行业中有两种次级副产品值得一提:甘蔗渣灰和甘蔗秸秆。第一种,甘蔗甘蔗渣在热电锅炉中燃烧,产生蒸汽能量,带动涡轮机发电,并加热甘蔗汁。甘蔗渣的特性取决于榨汁过程(吸胀或扩散)。印度和巴西的糖厂大多采用吸胀法,而扩散法在欧洲、南非、中美洲和埃及较为常见(Bizzo, 2014)。二是甘蔗秸秆来源于机械收割机留下的残渣。平均总热值(GCV)甘蔗秸秆(包括甘蔗、上衣和树叶)约16 MJ /公斤(Deepchand, 1986),这种高热值的甘蔗秸秆使得它潜在的燃料的热电联产系统。(Gopinath, Bahurudeen, Appari, & Nanthagopalan, 2018)。此外,本文“产品设计和商业模式战略循环经济”(南希·m·p·Bocken 2015),州AB糖,英国最大的糖生产商市场份额,发展他们的商业模式进入循环经济包括使用他们的行李副产品作为额外利润的收入来源。另一个应用循环经济模式的行业是位于荷兰的政府的水务主管机构,它不再仅仅把废水看作是一种需要处理和处理的废物,而是作为一种有价值的可再生能源、原材料和洁净水的来源。这是通过将许多传统的污水处理厂转变为能源和原材料工厂来实现的,这些工厂是资源工厂,可以对实现循环经济作出重大贡献。此外,为了符合国家关于循环经济和更绿色未来的政策计划,它们正集中从城市废水中回收至少五种资源:纤维素、生物塑料、磷酸盐、生物ale和生物量。目前,大约有100个消化器正在运作,正在从生物量中生产沼气(甲烷和二氧化碳的混合物)。(Leeuwen, Vries, Koop, & Roest, 2018)。据荷兰统计局(Haag & Heerlen, 2019)报道,目前的沼气产量为1.07亿立方米/年。每立方米0.20欧元,每年的收入为2400万欧元,预计到2030年,总收入将达到4000万欧元。这几乎占了水务部门能源消耗的40%,(Nieuwenhuijzen, Sanders, Visser, Odegard, & Bergsma, 2016)。在不久的将来,可以预期,当水务部门进一步将其与风能、太阳能和地热能结合起来,甚至成为像汉堡市那样的能源净生产者时,他们将在能源方面自给自足。
美国西雅图assignment代写 循环经济模式
One industry that is applying this circular economy model to its aftermath residue is the sugar industry. There are two secondary by products worth mentioning in this industry: the sugarcane bagasse ash and sugarcane straw. The first, sugarcane bagasse ash is burnt in the cogeneration boilers to produce steam energy to spin turbines for electricity generation and to heat up cane juice. The characteristics of bagasse ash will depend up on the process (imbibition or diffusion) adopted for juice extraction. Most of the sugar mills in India and Brazil use imbibition method while diffusion process is common in Europe, South Africa, Central America and Egypt (Bizzo, 2014). The second one, sugarcane straw comes from the residue the mechanical harvester leaves behind. The average Gross Calorific Value (GCV) of sugarcane straw (including cane, tops and leaves) is about 16 MJ/kg (Deepchand, 1986), this high calorific value of sugarcane straw makes it a potential fuel in the cogeneration system. (Gopinath, Bahurudeen, Appari, & Nanthagopalan, 2018). Furthermore, the article “Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy”  (Nancy M. P. Bocken, 2015), states that AB sugar, the UK’s largest sugar producer by market share, has evolved their business model into a circular economy to include the use of their by-product baggage as an additional profitable source of income. Another industry, located in the Netherlands, applying the circular economy model is the government’s Water Authority Institution which no longer regards wastewater as merely a waste to be treated and processed, but as a valuable source of renewable energy, raw materials and clean water. This is being done by converting many of the traditional Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs), into Energy and Raw Materials Factories (ERMFs), which are resource factories that can contribute significantly to achieving circular economies. Moreover, in order to comply with the national policy plans towards a circular economy and greener future, they are focusing on the retrieval of at least five resources from municipal wastewater: cellulose, bioplastics, phosphate, bio-ALE, and biomass. Currently, approximately 100 digesters are operational and biogas (a mixture of CH4 and CO2) is being produced from biomass. (Leeuwen, Vries, Koop, & Roest, 2018). The current production of biogas is 107 million m3 per year as reported by Statistics Netherlands (Haag & Heerlen, 2019). With a price of € 0.20 per m3, this is a revenue of €24 million per year that is expected to increase by 2030 to a total revenue of €40 million per year. This covers almost 40% of the energy consumption of the water authorities, (Nieuwenhuijzen, Sanders , Visser , Odegard , & Bergsma , 2016). In the near future, it can be expected that the water authorities will be self-supporting regarding energy, when they combine it further with wind, solar, and geothermal energy, or even become net producers of energy as in the case of the city of Hamburg.

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