2020-05-19 14:44

根据Kasl的定义,健康行为是“一个人相信自己是健康的,为了预防疾病或在无症状期发现疾病而进行的任何活动。”“健康行为模型的目的是试图理解为什么个人或群体会或不会参与与健康相关的行为。”每个人都会参与一些不健康的活动,这些活动会损害他们的健康。对他们来说,这种行为似乎并不是不健康的,因为其好处大于风险。选择健康的行为并不会自动导致实践,行为的实际改变可能很难维持。作者分析了贝克尔的健康信念模型,制作了一张以证据为基础的海报,以对抗工作场所的压力。该海报针对的是容易受到压力和相关健康状况影响的普通员工。这些人目前的行为可能是经常生病、缺乏动力和工作不开心。障碍可能是个体不认为自己有压力,或者不认为正念可以解决他们的感受。然而,通过“没有心理健康就没有健康”的论文,一种更全面的精神健康问题方法变得更加突出,并鼓励个人承认他们的感觉没有尴尬或耻辱(Barker, 2009)。海报有助于通过同伴支持来增加改变行为的动机,这已被证明是有效的(Sarrami-Foroushani, Travaglia, Debono & Braithwaite, 2014)。然而,这种方法也可以让一个人感觉中公开自己的感情,害怕拒绝而不愿意参与.Becker健康信念模型是一个健康的特定的认知模型,解释行为决策过程,假定行为规划未来,基于结果的期望,许多因素导致行为的改变(遗嘱,2007),(见附录C)。该模型在预测哪些人会或不会使用预防方法方面是有用的,并有助于建议干预措施,可能改善耐药个体参与预防行为的倾向(如压力正念疗法)。然而,对于采取建议的健康行为的个人来说,疾病的威胁和行动的益处必须超过行动的障碍(Naidoo等人,2015)。海报的目的是提供足够的信息,这样,如果个人觉得改变是不可能的,他们将有进一步的知识,在未来的潜在变化的联络点和网上信息。
As defined by Kasl , health behaviour is “any activity undertaken by a person who believes himself to be healthy for the purpose of preventing disease or detecting disease in an asymptomatic stage.”  The purpose of a health behaviour model is to try and understand why individuals or groups do, or do not engage in health related behaviours . Individuals partake in things that can be unhealthy and damage their health. This behaviour may not seem unhealthy to them as the benefits outweigh the risks.  Choosing healthy behaviour does not automatically lead to practicing it and an actual change in behaviour can be very difficult to sustain The author has analysed the Becker’s health belief model to produce an evidence based poster to combat stress in the work place. The poster is aimed at an average workforce susceptible to stress and the related ill health conditions that this may manifest.  The groups current behaviour would perhaps be regular sickness, lack of motivation and unhappiness at work.  Barriers may be that individual’s do not perceive themselves as stressed or do not feel that mindfulness would be a resolution to how they feel. However, a more holistic approach to mental health problems has become more prominent through the “no health without mental health” paper and encourages individuals to acknowledge their feelings without embarrassment or stigma (Barker, 2009).  The poster helps to increase motivation to change behaviour through peer support which has been proven to be effective (Sarrami-Foroushani, Travaglia, Debono & Braithwaite, 2014).  However, this method may also make an individual feel exposed in their emotions, fearing rejection and not willing to participate .Becker’s health belief model is a health specific cognition model that interprets behaviour as a decision making process and assumes behaviour as planning ahead, based on outcome expectations, where many factors contribute to behavioural change (Wills, 2007), (see appendix C).  The model is useful in predicting individuals who would or would not use preventive methods and help to recommend interventions that may improve the predisposition of resistant individuals to participate in preventive behaviour (such as mindfulness therapy for stress).  However, for individuals to adopt suggested health behaviours, the threat of illness and benefits of action must outweigh the barriers to action (Naidoo et al., 2015).  The poster aims to give enough information so that if individuals did not feel change was possible, they would have further knowledge for potential change in the future with a point of contact and online information.
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