教育学assignment代写 教授自闭症

2020-11-24 23:31

此外,在一项旨在教授自闭症儿童日常生活技能的研究中也使用了同样的方法,比如洗手(Rosenberg, Schwartz & Davis, 2010)。这项研究涉及3个3到5岁的自闭症儿童,每个人都有不同的能力。在这项研究中,我们获得了一个商业视频模型,并将其与定制视频进行了比较。研究人员对参与者进行了一项预测试,在该测试中,没有人能够正确地洗手(在9步中平均正确1.5步)。随后,研究人员给每个参与者播放了一段没有旁白的商业视频,并要求他们重复这项技能。然后,研究人员向参与者展示了一段定制的视频,视频中有精确的一步一步的说明,以及以表扬形式的强化,并要求他们洗手。结果显示,在定制的视频设置中,正确的步骤比商业视频更多。然而,这些结果受到许多因素的影响,包括视频的内容,其中有具体的步骤,使它更容易跟上。此外,作者没有意识到,参与者保留商业视频中的舞步可能会产生顺序效应,这为他们在第二种情况下表演技巧提供了额外的提示。相比之下,Iftar & Bunyamin(2010)采用了一种现场建模的程序,即参与者积极地观看他们面前的模型,而不是通过视频片段。他们发现,在观看模特和同伴表演基本的食物和饮料准备技能,并被要求复制他们的行为之后,参与者的表现有100%的准确性。3名参与者轮流进行活动;一名模特和一名同伴展示了一套基本技能(例如从配方奶粉中配制果汁),而另外两名则进行观察。与Rosenberg et al.(2010)不同的是,本研究认识到了潜在的顺序效应,因此随机向参与者提供任务。对于研究人员来说,视频建模方法比现场建模更方便,因为它允许对技能进行多次演示。虽然在Iftar和Bunyamin(2010)的研究中并不明显,但其他使用实时建模的研究可能存在自闭症参与者不能长时间集中注意力并错过关键步骤的潜在限制。
教育学assignment代写 教授自闭症
 Furthermore, the same method has been used in a study aiming to teach daily living skills to autistic children, like handwashing (Rosenberg, Schwartz & Davis, 2010). This study involved 3 autistic children aged between 3 and 5 years, each with distinct capabilities. For this particular study, a commercial video model was obtained and compared with a customised video. Participants were given a pre-test in which none of them were able to correctly wash their hands (average of 1.5 correct steps out of 9). Each participant was then shown a commercial video with no narrations and asked to replicate the skill. Participants were then shown a customised video that had precise step by step instructions, as well as reinforcements in the form of praise, and asked to wash their hands. The results showed a higher number of correct steps in the customised video setting than the commercial video. However, these results are influenced by many factors including the content of the video in which there were specific steps making it easier to follow. Additionally, authors failed to acknowledge the order effect that may have come about from participants retaining steps from the commercial video, providing them extra cues when performing the skill in the second condition. Contrastingly, Iftar & Bunyamin (2010) made use of a live modelling procedure whereby participants actively watch a model in front of them, not through video footage. They found that there was 100% accuracy in participant performance after watching a model and peer perform basic food and drink preparation skills and being asked to replicate the behaviour. The 3 participants took turns in activities; a model and one peer demonstrated a set of basic skills (e.g. preparing juice from a powder formula), while the other 2 observed. Different to Rosenberg et al., (2010), this study recognised the potential order effects, and therefore provided tasks at random to participants. The video modelling  method is more convenient for researchers than live modelling, as it allows for the  demonstration of skills multiple times. Although not evident in Iftar & Bunyamin’s (2010) study, other studies with live modelling can have potential limitations of autistic participants not being able to pay attention for long and missing out on key steps.
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