美国社会学作业代写 社会群体

2020-07-17 17:28

一些社会群体比其他群体更有可能成为穷人。英国政府对贫困的衡量标准是收入低于中位收入的60%(McGuinness,2018)。(收入中位数是中等收入。一半人的收入高于中位数,一半人的收入低于中位数)。) 它是相对贫困的衡量标准,因为它随着其他人口的收入变化而变化(CGP,2016,第82页)。社会阶层会影响财富、收入和贫困。决定社会阶层的因素,如工作类型与经济福利密切相关。与社会经济地位较高的人相比,从事非技术性、体力性工作的人往往工资较低,工作保障较少。功能主义者同意,财富的不平等分配对社会是有益的(Shildrick and Rucell,2015)。根据他们的观点,一些人比其他人更富有或更贫穷,因为社会的功能是这样的。他们建议,需要有一种方式将人们分配到合适的角色和工作。顶级工作需要得到比其他工作更高的奖励,以激励聪明人接受培训。Purohit(2017)说,种族似乎也会影响收入。据他介绍,人口普查数据显示,英国白人和印度人比孟加拉国人、巴基斯坦人和非洲黑人更容易从事有偿工作。同时,由于文化原因,女性的差异也更大,比如在一些文化中,女性传统上应该留在家里照顾孩子。这就是为什么马克思主义对贫困的解释受到批评的原因,因为他们声称资本主义是财富和收入不平等的原因(CGP,2016,p.85)。根据马克思主义者的观点,如果财富平均分配,资本家就不会有任何利润。除此之外,剥削是资本主义的重要组成部分,财富和收入的不平等是剥削的核心部分。马克思主义者忽视了性别和种族对贫困的影响。它没有解释为什么妇女比男子更容易贫穷,为什么孟加拉国家庭比其他家庭更容易贫穷。
美国社会学作业代写 社会群体
Some social groups are more likely to be poor than others. The government measure of poverty in the UK is an income of less than 60% of the median income (McGuinness, 2018). (The median income is the middle income. Half the population earn more than the median, half of them earn less.) It is a measure of relative poverty as it changes in line with the incomes of the rest of the population (CGP, 2016, p. 82). Social class affects wealth, income and poverty. The factors determining social class, such as the type of job are closely linked to economic well-being. People in unskilled, manual jobs tend to have lower wages and less job security than those higher up the socio-economic scale. Functionalists agrees that unequal distribution of wealth is good for the society (Shildrick and Rucell, 2015). According to them, some people are richer or poorer than others because society functions that way. They suggest that there needs to be a way of allocating people to suitable roles and jobs. The top jobs need to be rewarded more highly than others to motivate intelligent people to train for them. Ethnicity also seem to affect income, said Purohit (2017). According to him, census data showed that White British and Indian people are more likely to be in paid work than Bangladeshi, Pakistani and Black African people. Also, the difference for women is much greater due to cultural reasons such as women in some cultures are traditionally expected to stay at home to look after the children. This is why Marxist explanations of poverty have been criticised because they claim that capitalism is the reason for inequalities in wealth and income (CGP, 2016, p. 85). According to the Marxists, if wealth was distributed equally, there would not be any profit for the capitalists. In addition to that, exploitation is an essential part of capitalism, and inequalities in wealth and income are central part of that exploitation. Marxists ignores the effects of gender and ethnicity on poverty. It does not explain why women are more likely to be poorer than men, or why Bangladeshi households are more likely to be poor than other households.
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