北美论文代写 音乐情绪

2020-10-07 00:48

他发现,参与这些活动的学生可能会有一个增强的情绪健康状态(2011)。苏萨具有里程碑意义的研究还发现,有规律的体育活动促进了大脑毛细血管的生长,从而加快了血液运输。它还能增加血液中的含氧量,从而显著提高认知能力。这种运动不仅增加了智力功能,还消耗了一些动觉能量,这样学生们就可以静下心来专心学习了。(2011)在playful learning中,幼儿是一种参与性、轻松性、挑战性的心态,这种心态有利于最大限度地学习(LEGO learning Institute, 2013)。从不同的文章和阅读中可以清楚地看出,运动在学习和大脑发育中也扮演着不同的角色。玩耍一直被认为是儿童学习的主要方式。维果茨基(1978)解释说,玩耍给了孩子大部分早期取得成就的机会,这些成就将成为他们有形成就的基本水平。根据适合发展的实践,玩耍是任何幼儿课程中最重要的因素。通过玩耍,孩子们发展社交、情感和认知技能;儿童通过身体来表达自己,表达自己的感受,并获得和学习基本的概念和技能(Bredekamp & Copple, 1995)。游戏和运动也是一个成功的学习环境的核心部分。所有年龄段的孩子都应该能够在学习的同时自由活动和玩耍。许多老师试图压制孩子的活动,让他们在白天久坐不动;这也扼杀了他们的创造力和学习欲望。一些教育工作者认为,将运动和游戏融入学习有助于加强强调有效覆盖课程的教育政策。(Mardell, Wilson, Ryan, Ertel, Krechevsky, & Baker, 2016)。我们需要对教学方法进行转变,以认识到课堂中运动和好玩学习的重要性。里夫金认为,当教师开始把运动看作是孩子们的基本需要,并努力通过融入运动来帮助他们,而不是阻止他们移动,这就在教室内外培养了一种适应的氛围,使孩子们更容易做自己。温伯格的研究得出结论,音乐对大脑来说就像健美操。它不仅加强了学生的音乐技能,还加强了实际脑细胞之间的突触。随着神经元之间的连接增强,大脑自身的能力也增强了。这表明音乐对大脑的发育和成长至关重要。许多大脑系统依赖于突触的强度,如感觉和知觉系统、认知系统、精细运动和大肌肉运动系统、动机系统和学习记忆。苏萨说,在大脑生长发育的这些年里,神经连接的建立速度非常快。孩子们在玩耍时所做的许多事情——签名、画画、跳舞——都是自然的艺术形式。这些活动涉及到所有的感官,并以一种使大脑在记忆和理解信息时更有效的方式连接大脑。(2011)根据Gardner(1993),音乐智能是最原始的智能表面。通过将音乐融入日常教学,教师能够满足不同背景的学生的需求。许多文章谈到音乐是“普遍的”,所有来自各行各业的孩子都可以轻松而感性地参与其中。Humpal和Wolf认为音乐是快乐的,可以预测的,也是非评判的,非竞争性的(2003)。因此,音乐是教室里为数不多的能让所有学生平等竞争的方面之一。根据Jones的研究,音乐对学生的影响,情绪和表现提高了,任务表现提高了,焦虑水平降低了,行为事件减少了(2010)。温伯格讲述了赫尔维茨和他的同事(1975)在一个特定的研究项目中研究音乐和训练是否能提高一年级学生的阅读能力。在7个月的时间里,试验组每天学习40分钟,学习如何听民歌以及区分旋律和节奏元素。对照组,年龄、智商和社会经济地位相似,没有得到特殊待遇。在接受音乐听力训练后,实验组的阅读成绩明显高于对照组,前者的阅读成绩为88百分位,后者为72百分位。分数上的差异并不是由于加强的阅读指导,因为是同一位老师教了两组学生(1998年)。
北美论文代写 音乐情绪
He finds that a student who is participating in these activities will likely have an enhanced state of emotional well-being (2011).  Sousa’s landmark study also found that regular physical activity surges the growth of capillaries in the brain, thus expediting blood transport.  It also increases the volume of oxygen in the blood, which significantly enhances cognitive performance.  Not only does the movement increase mental function, but it uses up some kinesthetic energy so students can settle down and focus on their academic work. (2011)   In playful learning, children are involved, relaxed, and challenged states of mind highly favorable for maximum learning (LEGO Learning Institute, 2013).  It is clear, from the different articles and readings, that movement also plays a distinct role in learning and brain development.Play has long been acknowledged as a primary way children learn.  Vygotsky (1978) explains that play gives a child most of his or her early opportunities for achievements that will become their rudimentary level of tangible accomplishment.  According to developmentally appropriate practices, play is the most important factor in any early childhood curriculum.  Through play, children develop social, emotional, and cognitive skills; children express themselves physically, represent feelings, and obtain and learn essential concepts and skills (Bredekamp & Copple, 1995).  Play and movement are also central pieces to a successful learning environment.  Children of all ages should be able to move and play freely throughout the day while learning. Many teachers try and stifle a child’s movements, making them sedentary during the day; this also stifles their creativity and their desire to learn.  Some educators believe that incorporating movement and play into learning can help to strengthen educational policies that emphasize efficient coverage of the curriculum. (Mardell, Wilson, Ryan, Ertel, Krechevsky, & Baker, 2016).   A shift in pedagogy is needed to see the importance of movement and playful learning in the classroom.  Rivkin believes that when teachers begin to see movement as a rudimentary need of children and work to help them by incorporating movement rather than to deter them from moving, it nurtures an accommodating atmosphere both in and out of the classroom making it easier for children to be themselves. Weinberger’s study came to the conclusion that music is like calisthenics for the brain.  It not only strengthens a student’s musical skills, but it also fortifies the synapses between the actual brain cells. As these connections between the neurons increase in strength, so does the capacity of the brain itself.  (1998)  This shows that music is critical to brain development and growth.   Many brain systems depend on synaptic strength, such as, the sensory and perceptual systems, the cognitive system, fine and gross motor, the motivational system, and learning memory.  Sousa says that during the years when the brain is growing and developing, neural connections are being made at a rapid rate.  Much of what young children do as they play—signing, drawing, dancing—are natural forms of art.  These activities involve all the senses and wire the brain in a way that makes it more effective when retaining and understanding information.  (2011)  According to Gardner (1993) the musical intelligence is the most primitive intelligence to surface. By incorporating music into daily instruction, teachers are able to meet the needs of students with diverse backgrounds.  Many of the articles spoke of music being “universal” and that all children, from all walks of life could easily and affectively participate.  Humpal & Wolf state that music is joyful and predictable, as well as nonjudgmental and noncompetitive (2003).  Therefore, music is one of the very few classroom aspects that puts all students on an equal playing field.According to Jones, who studied the effects of music on students, moods and performance improved, on-task performance increased, anxiety levels were lowered, and behavioral incidents decreased (2010).    Weinberger tells about a specific research project in which Hurwitz and colleagues (1975) studied whether music and training enriched reading performance in 1st graders.  For 40 minutes a daily for seven months, the experimental group learned how to listen to folk songs and to distinguish melodic and rhythmic elements.  The control group, similar in age, IQ, and socioeconomic status, received no special treatment.  After receiving instruction in music listening, the experimental group displayed considerably higher reading scores than did the control group, the former scoring in the 88th percentile and the latter scoring in the 72nd percentile.  The differences in scores did not result from enhanced reading instruction because the same teacher taught both groups (1998).   
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