北美教育学assignment代写 教育经济

2020-08-20 05:06

2012年,经济合作与发展组织(OECD)的国际学生评估项目(PISA)通过全球测试提供了65个选择参与测试的国家的15岁学生在阅读、数学和科学方面表现的数据。这种全球性的考试每三年在不同的学生群体中进行一次。Goldstein(2004)“表达了对测试项目的文化等价性的关注”(引用于Perry, 2009,第82页)。国家倾向于把PISA看作是一个机会,通过他们在PISA表上的位置来判断他们的教育体系与其他国家的教育体系。教育决策者和其他关键决策者经常使用PISA和其他大规模评估产生的数据来制定政策决策和分配重要资源。所有缔约方都需要“更好地了解使用国际数据的技术局限性,以便将这些成就数据用于为政策制定和教育改革提供信息”(Gillis, Polesal & Wu, 2016, p.132)。在所有的检测项目中,都需要注意社会、文化和性别偏见的潜在来源,以便对所收集的数据做出更明智的决定。芬兰的孩子在PISA测试中表现最好或接近最好。然而,在芬兰的教育体系中,例如,几乎没有强制性的标准化考试,任何成绩都不会公开;重点是鼓励孩子学习如何学习;教师素质高,受人尊敬,报酬也相应高;教师可以在广泛的国家指导方针下独立工作;教师进行的任何测试都为教师提供关于孩子学习情况的信息(Hancock, 2011)。芬兰教育体系对学习而非考试的重视不同于其他大多数国家对考试的重视,但芬兰在PISA表中得分很高。新自由主义的出现和兴起导致了教育的深刻变化。教育不再被视为是为了公共利益。教育现在被看作是在竞争环境中经营的一门生意,重点放在高风险的考试和衡量绩效结果的考试上。教育学家越来越关注新自由主义意识形态,它已经嵌入到教育的背景中。新自由主义正在加剧社会的不平等。如果教育继续沿着当前的轨迹发展,澳大利亚社会的弱势群体将会越来越边缘化。至关重要的是,各国政府应制定有适当资源的相关政策,以确保为所有人建立一个更公平的社会。
北美教育学assignment代写 教育经济
 In 2012, global testing through the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developments (OECD) Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) provided data on the performance of 15 year-old students in reading, mathematics and science from sixty-five counties that chose to participate. This global testing takes place every three years on a different group of students. Goldstein (2004) has “expressed concern about the cultural equivalence of test items” (cited in Perry, 2009, p.82). Countries tend to see PISA as providing an opportunity to make a judgement of their education system relative to other countries through their positioning on the PISA table. Educational policy makers and other key decision makers frequently use PISA and other data produced from large scale assessments to make policy decisions and allocate significant resources. All parties need “to become better informed of the technical limitations of using international data if such achievement data is to be used to inform policy development and educational reforms” (Gillis, Polesal & Wu, 2016, p.132). In all testing programs potential sources of social, cultural and gender bias need to be noted in order to make more informed decisions on any data collected. Children from Finland perform at the top or near the top of the PISA tests. However, in the Finland education system there are, for example, virtually no mandated standardised tests, any results are not publicised; the focus is on encouraging children to learn how to learn; teachers are highly qualified, highly respected and paid accordingly; teachers have independence to work within broad national guidelines; any testing teachers undertake provides information for teachers on their children’s learning (Hancock, 2011). The importance given to learning and not testing by the Finland education system differs from the emphasis on testing by most other countries and yet Finland scores highly on the PISA table.The emergence and rise of neoliberalism has resulted in a profound change in education. No longer is education seen as being for the public good. Education is now seen as being a business operating in a competitive environment with a key focus on high stakes testing and examinations measuring performance outcomes. Educationalists are increasing concerned about neoliberal ideologies which have become embedded within the context of education. Neoliberalism is increasing contributing to an inequitable society. If education continues to evolve on the current trajectory, the disadvantaged groups in Australian society will become increasingly marginalised. It is critical that Governments make relevant policies which are resourced appropriately to ensure a more equitable society for all.
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