2019-12-25 18:48

初等数学,如荷兰et al。(1995)认为种族主义的影响是极右团体在利兹联队足球俱乐部和俱乐部的策略用来反对这些标识”,是不可能确定统一的种族歧视或偏见或种族关系”模式,理顺自己的选择的关注,“诸如种族、民族和体育必须明确“打开”的内容、时间和地点的。人们普遍认为,在英国,白人球员在足球比赛中不会遭遇种族歧视,然而,有证据证明这一观点是错误的。事实上,足球文化中存在着身份代码,它揭示了相当复杂的种族含义。一个典型的例子就是那首“我宁愿当巴基斯坦人,也不愿当利物浦人”,这首歌经常被阿森纳、切尔西和曼联的球迷唱给利物浦的球迷听。这首歌是根据《她将绕山而来》(She ' ll be coming round the mountain)的曲调演唱的,是写给默西塞德郡的粉丝们的。其目的是将来自默西塞德郡的人从一个正常的英国社会降级为一个让人皱眉的社会。因此嘲笑“邻里民族主义”的利物浦。这是由来自伦敦和曼彻斯特的不同种族的球迷实现的,他们改变了“被憎恨的少数民族”的含义,这是“巴基斯坦人”的耻辱类别,而不是保留他们的种族,成为一个利物浦人。这个例子突出了地方种族化和种族排斥的复杂性。同样,它也强调了不同的少数民族社区在当地社会中可能具有不同的等级地位。例如,年轻的黑人男性可能会在特定的球迷文化中赢得包容,甚至是有威望的职位,而其他少数民族——在这里是南方。
Authers such as Holland et al. (1995) who considered the impact of racism by far right groups at Leeds united football club and the strategies used to oppose these by the club identified ‘that it is impossible to identify uniform patterns of racism or prejudice or race relations’, rationalize their own choice of focus on the basis that ‘terms such as race, ethnicity and sport have to be specifically “unpacked” in terms of content, time and place’.There is a general consensus that white players do not experience racism in football in the UK, however there is evidence to contradict this belief. There are in fact identity codes within football culture which reveal quite complicated racial meanings. A prime example is the song ‘I’d rather be a Paki than a Scouse’ which is regularly sung to Liverpool supporters by supporters from Arsenal and Chelsea and Manchester United fans.This song which is sung to the tune of ‘She’ll be coming round the mountain’ is directed at Merseyside fans. The intention is to demote the status people who come from Merseyside from being a normal English society, to one which is frowned upon. Therefore ridiculing the ‘neighbourhood nationalism’ of Scouseness. This is achieved by fans of different ethnicities from London and Manchester to altering the meaning of being a loathed minority which is the stigmatized category of a ‘Paki’, rather than retain their race and be a Scouser.This example ehphasises the complexities of local racialization and racial exclusion. Likewise it also highlights the fact that different minority communities may have a different hierarchal status within local society. . For example, young black men may win inclusion and even command positions of prestige within particular fan cultures while other minorities – in this case South
  • 上一篇:没有了
  • 下一篇:没有了